Furthermore, a p(Y)-deleted mutant showed a reduction in virulence in the STAT1 mouse model, highlighting the role of RNA structures in norovirus pathogenesis.
This work highlights how, like with other positive-strand RNA viruses, RNA structures present at the termini of the norovirus genome play important roles in virus replication and virulence.
These results indicate for the first time that Hsp47 is required for the molecular maturation of type IV collagen and suggest that misfolded type IV collagen causes abnormal morphology of embryoid bodies.
The deduced proteins contain 441 and 439 amino acids.
In situ hybridization of mouse embryos detected Emid2 expression in somites and in mesenchymal cells of the head and branchial arches at embryonic day 9.5.
At later developmental stages, Emid2 was expressed in mesenchyme of the salivary gland, the inner ear, and the developing kidney nephrons adjacent to Emid1-positive epithelium.
embryonic stem cell lines and examined formation of basement membrane and production of type IV collagen in embryoid bodies, a model for postimplantation egg-cylinder stage embryos.
The visceral endodermal cell layers surrounding cells, which suggested insufficient or incorrect triple helix formation in type IV collagen in the absence of Hsp47.